Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kangwon National University1
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University2
Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and/or food applications. In particular, plant proteins, including globular proteins, represent important functional ingredients in many processed food products. Thus, the current study investigated and compared the antihypertensive properties of globulin, amandin, and cucurbitin proteins isolated from white sesame, almond, and pumpkin seeds, respectively. Extracted globulin, amandin, and cucurbitin proteins were shown to each comprise acidic and basic polypeptides of varying sizes (globulin polypeptides, 30－33 and 20－24 kDa, respectively; amandin polypeptides, 40－42 and 15－20 kDa, respectively; cucurbitin polypeptides, 35－42 and 20－25 kDa, respectively). The alpha amylase-inhibiting activity and resulting antihypertensive effects exhibited by the isolated 11S globulin, amandin, and cucurbitin polypeptides were characterized. Finally, the current study also reviewed current literature with regard to the properties of various peptides released by plant proteases, and their mitigating effects on disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer.
1. Abazarfard, Z., Salehi, M., Keshavarzi, S. (2014) The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci 19(5):457 -464.
2. Abdel-Rahman, M. K. (2006) Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) diets on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): chemical and morphometric evaluation in rats. World J Chem 1(1):33-40.
3. Ahmad, A., Ramasamy, K., Jaafar, S. M., Majeed, A. B. A., Mani, V. (2014) Total isoflavones from soybean and tempeh reversed scopolamine-induced amnesia, improved cholinergic activities and reduced neuroinflammation in brain. Food Chem Toxicol 65:120-128.
4. Akpakpan, A. E., Akpabio, U. D. (2012) Evaluation of proximate composition, mineral elements and anti-nutrient in almond (Terminalia catappa) seeds. Res J Appl Sci 7(9-12):489-493.
5. Akubude, V. C., Nwaigwe, K. N. (2016) Economic importance of edible and non-edible almond fruit as bioenergy material: a review. Am J Energy Sci 3(5):31-39.
6. Alasalvar, C., Bolling, B. W. (2015) Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects. Br J Nutr 113(S2):S68-S78.
7. Albillos, S. M., Jin, T., Howard, A., Zhang, Y., Kothary, M. H., Fu, T. J. (2008) Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin. J Agric Food Chem 56(13):5352-5358.
8. Ali, N. M. M. (2015) Effect of alkaline pretreatment on protein fraction of high tannin sorghum cultivar (Doctoral dissertation, UOFK).
9. Al-Okbi, S. Y., Mohamed, D. A., Kandil, E., Abo-Zeid, M. A., Mohammed, S. E., Ahmed, E. K. (2017) Anti- inflammatory activity of two varieties of pumpkin seed oil in an adjuvant arthritis model in rats. Grasas y Aceites 68(1):180.
10. Amin, T., Thakur, M. (2013) Research article cucurbita mixta (pumpkin) seeds-a general overview on their health benefits. Int J Recent Sci Res 4(6):846-854.
11. Aragão, V. P. M., Navarro, B. V., Passamani, L. Z., Macedo, A. F., Floh, E. I. S., Silveira, V., Santa-Catarina, C. (2015) Free amino acids, polyamines, soluble sugars and proteins during seed germination and early seedling growth of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae), an endangered hardwood species from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Theor Exp Plant Physiol 27(2):157-169.
12. Asghar, A., Majeed, M. N. (2013) Chemical characterization and fatty acid profile of different sesame verities in Pakistan. Am J Sci Ind Res 4(6):540-545.
13. Babita, K. (2013) Utilization of dehydrated pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poir) and its seeds for development of value added products (Doctoral dissertation).
14. Ben Mrid, R., El Omari, R., Bouargalne, Y., El Mourabit, N., Nhiri, M. (2017) Activities of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes during germinating sorghum seeds and early seedlings growth. Cereal Res Commun 45(4):587-597.
15. Besseiche, A., Riveline, J. P., Gautier, J. F., Breant, B., Blondeau, B. (2015) Metabolic roles of PGC-1α and its implications for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 41(5):347-357.
16. Bhat, Z. F., Kumar, S., Bhat, H. F. (2015) Bioactive peptides of animal origin: a review. J Food Sci Technol 52(9): 5377-5392.
17. Bhoi, P. R. (2014) Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil. Oklahoma State University.
18. Bhushan, R., Dixit, S. (2012) Application of HPLC, Gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography for separation and characterization of storage proteins of soybean and peanut. Acta Chromatogr 24(3):323-349.
19. Blackburn, T. P. (2017) 6 actions of drugs on the cardiovascular and renal system. Pharmacology for Chemists: Drug Discovery in Context 221.
20. Bojórquez-Velázquez, E., Lino-López, G. J., Huerta-Ocampo, J. A., Barrera-Pacheco, A., de la Rosa, A. P. B., Moreno, A., Osuna-Castro, J. A. (2016) Purification and biochemical characterization of 11S globulin from chan (Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit) seeds. Food Chem 192:203-211.
21. Braunwald, E. (2015) The path to an angiotensin receptor antagonist-neprilysin inhibitor in the treatment of heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 65(10):1029-1041.
22. Brown, R. C., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., Smith, C., Fleming, E., Parnell, W. (2016) Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr 115(1):105-112.
23. Chakraborty, K., Joy, M. (2017) Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities of commonly available cephalopods. Int J Food Prop 20(7):1655-1665.
24. Chatterjee, S. (2016) India’s evolving food and nutrition scenario: an overview. In Globalisation and the Challenges of Development in Contemporary India (pp. 79-106). Springer Singapore.
25. Chen, C. O., Holbrook, M., Duess, M. A., Dohadwala, M. M., Hamburg, N. M., Asztalos, B. F., Vita, J. A. (2015) Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Nutr J 14(1):61.
26. Chen, X., Fang, Y., Nishinari, K., We, H., Sun, C., Li, J., Jiang, Y. (2014) Physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharide conjugates prepared from fresh tea leaves and their improving impaired glucose tolerance. Carbohydr Polym 112:77-84.
27. Chhabra, G. S. (2013) Effects of Maillard reaction on the immunoreactivity of almond major protein in the food matrices (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University).
28. Chin, K. Y., Qin, C., Cao, N., Kemp-Harper, B. K., Woodman, O. L., Ritchie, R. H. (2014) The concomitant coronary vasodilator and positive inotropic actions of the nitroxyl donor Angeli's salt in the intact rat heart: contribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol 171(7):1722-1734.
29. Chonoko, U. G., Rufai, A. B. (2011) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 4(1):145-147.
30. Couch, A., Gloaguen, R. M., Langham, D. R., Hochmuth, G. J., Bennett, J. M., Rowland, D. L. (2017) Non-dehiscent sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): its unique production potential and expansion into the southeastern USA. J Crop Improv 31(2):101-172.
31. Czubinski, J., Barciszewski, J., Gilski, M., Szpotkowski, K., Debski, J., Lampart-Szczapa, E., Jaskolski, M. (2015) Structure of γ-conglutin: insight into the quaternary structure of 7S basic globulins from legumes. Acta Crystallogr, Sect D: Biol Crystallogr 71(2):224-238.
32. Da Costa, J. S. B. (2013) Development and application of molecular-based methods for the detection of tree nut allergens: the cases of almond, hazelnut and walnut. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto.
33. De La Cruz, S., Madrid, R., García-García, A., Alcocer, M., Martín, R., González, I., García, T. (2017) Identification and characterisation of the proteins bound by specific phage-displayed recombinant antibodies (scFv) obtained against Brazil nut and almond extracts. J Sci Food Agric DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8640.
34. Dellafiora, L., Paolella, S., Dall’Asta, C., Dossena, A., Cozzini, P., Galaverna, G. (2015) Hybrid in silico/in vitro approach for the identification of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Parma dry-cured ham. J Agric Food Chem 63(28):6366-6375.
35. Dhital, S., Warren, F. J., Butterworth, P. J., Ellis, P. R., Gidley, M. J. (2017) Mechanisms of starch digestion by α-amylase—Structural basis for kinetic properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57(5):875-892.
36. Eisenman, S. W. (2015) Some nomenclatural adjustments and typifications for almond species in the genus Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae). Phytotaxa 222(3):185-198.
37. Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Maazoun, B., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., Attia, H. (2014) Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier. Food Chem 145:765-771.
38. Esfahlan, A. J., Jamei, R., Esfahlan, R. J. (2010) The importance of almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and its by-products. Food Chem 120(2):349-360.
39. Fageer, A. S. M. (2015) Effect of genotype, malt pretreatment and cooking on phytate, in vitro protein digestibility and protein fractions of corn (Zea mays) flour (Doctoral dissertation, UOFK).
40. Fitzgerald, C. P. (2014) Development of bioactive bread enriched with a seaweed peptide fraction with potential heart-health effects (Doctoral dissertation, University College London (University of London)).
41. Fitzgerald, R. J., Murray, B. A., Walsh, D. J. (2004) Hypotensive peptides from milk proteins. J Nutr 134(4):980S-988S.
42. Foley, R. C., Jimenez-Lopez, J. C., Kamphuis, L. G., Hane, J. K., Melser, S., Singh, K. B. (2015) Analysis of conglutin seed storage proteins across lupin species using transcriptomic, protein and comparative genomic approaches. BMC Plant Biol 15(1):106.
43. Gallardo, K., Jolivet, P., Vernoud, V., Canonge, M., Larré, C., Chardot, T. (2016) Storage cells-oil and protein bodies. Mol Cell Biol Growth Differ Plant Cells. 362-381.
44. Gandhi, A. P., Srivastava, J. (2007) Studies on the production of protein isolates from defatted sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) flour and their nutritional profile. ASEAN Food J 14(3):175.
45. Gharby, S., Harhar, H., Bouzoubaa, Z., Asdadi, A., El Yadini, A., Charrouf, Z. (2017) Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of seeds and oil of sesame grown in Morocco. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 16(2):105-111.
46. Gómez-Arellano, A., Jiménez-Islas, H., Castrejón-González, E. O., Medina-Torres, L., Dendooven, L., Escamilla-Silva, E. M. (2017) Rheological behaviour of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein dispersions. Food Bioprod Process 106:201-208.
47. González, J., Valls, N., Brito, R., Rodrigo, R. (2014) Essential hypertension and oxidative stress: new insights. World J Cardiol 6(6):353-366.
48. Gorrepati, K., Balasubramanian, S., Chandra, P. (2015) Plant based butters. J Food Sci Technol 52(7):3965-3976.
49. Gradziel, T. M. (2017) 2 History of cultivation. Almonds: Botany, Production and Uses, 43.
50. Hassan, A. B., Eltayeb, M. M., Babiker, E. E., Hamed, S. Y., El Hassan, N. M. (2016) Nutritional evaluation and physiochemical properties of processed pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed flour.
51. Hegedus, D. D., Coutu, C., Harrington, M., Hope, B., Gerbrandt, K., Nikolov, I. (2015) Multiple internal sorting determinants can contribute to the trafficking of cruciferin to protein storage vacuoles. Plant Mol Biol 88(1-2): 3-20.
52. Hernández-Ledesma, B., Amigo, L., Ramos, M., Recio, I. (2004) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity in commercial fermented products. Formation of peptides under simulated gastrointestinal digestion. J Agric Food Chem 52(6):1504-1510.
53. Hijar, B. (2013) The production of protein isolates from the aqueous extraction of de-hulled yellow mustard flour and determination of their functional properties (Doctoral dissertation).
54. Huang, Z., Fu, J., Zhang, Y. (2017) Nitric oxide donor-based cancer therapy: advances and prospect. J Med Chem 60(18):7617-7635.
55. Inarejos-García, A. M., Gómez-Rico, A., Desamparados Salvador, M., Fregapane, G. (2010) Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition. J Agric Food Chem 58(8):4858-4865.
56. Irvine, J. C., Cao, N., Gossain, S., Alexander, A. E., Love, J. E., Qin, C., Ritchie, R. H. (2013) HNO/cGMP-dependent antihypertrophic actions of isopropylamine-NONOate in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes: potential therapeutic advantages of HNO over NO. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 305(3):H365-H377.
57. Jakubczyk, A., Karaś, M., Złotek, U., Szymanowska, U. (2017) Identification of potential inhibitory peptides of enzymes involved in the metabolic syndrome obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion of fermented bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. Food Res Int 100:489-496.
58. Jamshed, H., Sultan, F. A. T., Iqbal, R., Gilani, A. H. (2015) Dietary almonds increase serum HDL cholesterol in coronary artery disease patients in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr 145(10):2287-2292.
59. Janssen, F., Pauly, A., Rombouts, I., Jansens, K. J., Deleu, L. J., Delcour, J. A. (2017) Proteins of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), and Quinoa (Chenopodium spp.): a food science and technology perspective. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 16(1):39-58.
60. Jyothi, T. C. (2007) Low molecular weight proteins of mustard seed (Brassica Juncea): Structure, Function and Interaction with Intrinsic Ligands (Doctoral dissertation, University of Mysore).
61. Kajaria, D., Ranjana, J. T., Tripathi, Y. B., Tiwari, S. (2013) In-vitro α amylase and glycosidase inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of antiasthmatic drug—Shirishadi. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 4(4):206.
62. Keservani, R. K., Sharma, A. K., Kesharwani, R. K. (2016) An overview and therapeutic applications of nutraceutical and functional foods. Recent Adv Drug Delivery Technol 6:160-200.
63. Khan, I. A., Abourashed, E. A. (2011) Leung’s encyclopedia of common natural ingredients: used in food, drugs and cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons.
64. Khan, N., Khalil, S. K., Amanullah, A. A., Ullah, Z., Ali, M. (2016) Effect of nitrogen and sulfur on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) in calcareous soil. Pure Appl Biol 5(3):471-475.
65. Kindinew, D. (2015) Evaluation of pumpkin supplementation levels with wheat flour on proximate composition. Functional and Sensory Attribute of Leavened Bread (Doctoral dissertation, Harmaya University).
66. Koch, C. D., Gladwin, M. T., Freeman, B. A., Lundberg, J. O., Weitzberg, E., Morris, A. (2017) Enterosalivary nitrate metabolism and the microbiome: intersection of microbial metabolism, nitric oxide and diet in cardiac and pulmonary vascular health. Free Radic Biol Med 105:48-67.
67. Kochhar, S. P. (2011) 11 Minor and Speciality Oils. Vegetable oils in food technology: composition, properties and uses, 291.
68. Lacroix, I. M., Li-Chan, E. C. (2013) Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV and α-glucosidase activities by pepsin-treated whey proteins. J Agric Food Chem 61(31):7500-7506.
69. Laohakunjit, N., Kerdchoechuen, O., Kaprasob, R., Matta, F. B. (2017) Volatile flavor, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of enzymatic defatted sesame hydrolysate. J Food Process Preserv 41(4):DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.13075.
70. Lee, M. J., Chung, I. M., Kim, H., Jung, M. Y. (2015) High resolution LC-ESI-TOF-mass spectrometry method for fast separation, identification, and quantification of 12 isoflavones in soybeans and soybean products. Food Chem 176:254-262.
71. Lewis, P. W., Müller, M. M., Koletsky, M. S., Cordero, F., Lin, S, Banaszynski, L. A., Garcia BA, Muir TW, Becher OJ, Allis, C. D. (2013) Inhibition of PRC2 activity by a gain-of-function H3 mutation found in pediatric glioblastoma. Science 340(6134):857-861.
72. Libo, W., Zeyuan, Y., Yaqin, X., Yongfeng, H., Zhenping, X., Xiaosong, Z. (2014) Isolation and characterization of a novel antifungal protein from pumpkin seeds. J Chin Cereals Oils Assoc 3:15.
73. Li-Chan, E. C. (2015) Bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates: research trends and challenges for application as nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Curr Opin Food Sci 1:28-37.
74. Longato, E., Lucas-González, R., Peiretti, P. G., Meineri, G., Pérez-Alvarez, J. A., Viuda-Martos, M., Fernández-López, J. (2017) The effect of natural ingredients (Amaranth and pumpkin seeds) on the quality properties of chicken burgers. Food Bioprocess Technol 10(11):2060-2068.
75. MacIsaac, R. J., Ekinci, E. I., Jerums, G. (2014) Markers of and risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 63(2):S39-S62.
76. Mäkinen, O. (2014) Studies on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) for novel food and beverage applications.
77. Manikkam, V., Vasiljevic, T., Donkor, O. N., Mathai, M. L. (2016) A review of potential marine-derived hypotensive and anti-obesity peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56(1):92-112.
78. Marambe, P. W. M. L. H. K., Wanasundara, J. P. D. (2012) Seed storage proteins as sources of bioactive peptides. Bioact Mol Plant Foods 2:49-80.
79. Marcone, M. R., Kakuda, Y., Jahaniaval, F., Yada, R. Y., Montevirgen, L. S. (2002) Characterization of the proteins of Pili nut (Canarium ovatum, Engl.). Plant Foods Hum Nutr (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) 57(2):107-120.
80. McClements, D. J., Gumus, C. E. (2016) Natural emulsifiers—Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 234:3-26.
81. McNulty, M. S. (2006) Preliminary characterization of wheat, Triticum aestivum, embryo globulins (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa (Canada)).
82. Miraj, S., Kiani, S. (2016) Bioactivity of Sesamum indicum: a review study. Der Pharmacia Lettre 8(6):328-334.
83. Monteiro, C. A., Moubarac, J. C., Cannon, G., Ng, S. W., Popkin, B. (2013) Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev 14(S2):21-28.
84. Nabi, A. N., Biswas, K. B., Ebihara, A., Nakagawa, T., Suzuki, F. (2013) Renin angiotensin system in the context of renin, prorenin, and the (pro) renin receptor. Rev Agric Sci 1:43-60.
85. Nair, S. S., Kavrekar, V., Mishra, A. (2013) In vitro studies on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts. Eur J Exp Biol 3(1):128-132.
86. Narasimhan, R. (2014) Phytochemical screening and evaluation of protein content in the seed extracts of cucurbita maxima. Int J Pharm Life Sci 5(7):3637-3642.
87. Nawaz, K. A., David, S. M., Murugesh, E., Thandeeswaran, M., Kiran, K. G, Mahendran, R., Palaniswamy M, Angayarkanni, J. (2017) Identification and in silico characterization of a novel peptide inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Phytomedicine 36:1-7.
88. Niezgoda, M. E. (2015) Selection and optimization of agar confectionary matrix for the delivery of naringenin from grapefruit or tomato fruit powders (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
89. Nongonierma, A. B., Fitz Gerald, R. J. (2015) The scientific evidence for the role of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in humans: a review. J Funct Foods 17:640-656.
90. Olasantan, F. O. (2007) Vegetable production in tropical Africa: status and strategies for sustainable management. J Sustainable Agric 30(3):41-70.
91. Olsen, M. H., Angell, S. Y., Asma, S., Boutouyrie, P., Burger, D., Chirinos, J. A, Damasceno A, Delles C, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Hering D, López-Jaramillo P. (2016) A call to action and a lifecourse strategy to address the global burden of raised blood pressure on current and future generations: the Lancet Commission on hypertension. The Lancet 388(10060):2665-2712.
92. Panwar, H., Calderwood, D., Grant, I. R., Grover, S., Green, B. D. (2014) Lactobacillus strains isolated from infant faeces possess potent inhibitory activity against intestinal alpha-and beta-glucosidases suggesting anti-diabetic potential. Eur J Nutr 53(7):1465-1474.
93. Parrotta, J. A., de Pryck, J. D., Obiri, B. D., Padoch, C., Powell, B., Sandbrook C, Agarwal B, Ickowitz A, Jeary K, Serban A, Sunderland TC. H. (2015) The historical, environmental and socio-economic context of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. In Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.
94. Pathak, N., Rai, A. K., Kumari, R., Bhat, K. V. (2014) Value addition in sesame: a perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability. Pharmacogn Rev 8(16):147.
95. Pereira, C. L. M. (2013) Characterization of allergens from several tree nuts and their role in plant food allergy (Doctoral dissertation).
96. Phelan, M., Khaldi, N., Shields, D. C., Kerins, D. M. (2014) Angiotensin converting enzyme and nitric oxide inhibitory activities of novel milk derived peptides. Int Dairy J 35(1):38-42.
97. Pibars, S. K., Mansour, H. A. (2016) Evaluation of response sesame water productivity to modern chemigation systems in new reclaimed lands. Int J Chem Tech Res 9(9):10-19.
98. Pojić, M., Mišan, A., Sakač, M., Dapčević Hadnađev, T., Šarić, B., Milovanović, I., Hadnađev, M. (2014) Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing. J Agric Food Chem 62(51):12436-12442.
99. Prgomet, I., Gonçalves, B., Domínguez-Perles, R., Pascual-Seva, N., Barros, A. I. (2017) Valorization challenges to almond residues: Phytochemical composition and functional application. Molecules 22(10):1774.
100. Puchalska, P., Marina Alegre, M. L., García López, M. C. (2015) Isolation and characterization of peptides with antihypertensive activity in foodstuffs. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(4):521-551.
101. Qian, Z. (2013) Antifungal activities of ethanol extracts from 30 kinds of Chinese herbs against powdery mildew of pumpkin. Plant Dis Pests 4(1):42.
102. Quiroga, A. V., Aphalo, P., Nardo, A. E., Añón, M. C. (2017) In vitro modulation of renin–Angiotensin system enzymes by amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) protein-derived peptides: alternative mechanisms different from ace inhibition. J Agric Food Chem 65(34):7415-7423.
103. Rawendra, R. D., Chen, S. H., Chang, C. I., Shih, W. L., Huang, T. C., Liao, M. H., Hsu, J. L. (2014) Isolation and characterization of a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory tripeptide from enzymatic hydrolysis of soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) egg white: in vitro, in vivo, and in silico study. J Agric Food Chem 62(50):12178-12185.
104. Riascos, J. J., Weissinger, S. M., Weissinger, A. K., Kulis, M., Burks, A. W., Pons, L. (2016) The seed biotinylated protein of soybean (Glycine max): a boiling-resistant new allergen (Gly m 7) with the capacity to induce IgE-mediated allergic responses. J Agric Food Chem 64(19):3890-3900.
105. Sacan, O., Akev, N., Yanardag, R. (2017) In vitro inhibitory effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. leaf extracts on the activity of some enzymes and antioxidant activity.
106. Sánchez, A., Vázquez, A. (2017) Bioactive peptides: a review. Food Quality and Safety 1(1):29-46.
107. Sang, S., Lapsley, K., Rosen, R. T., Ho, C. T. (2002) New prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J Agric Food Chem 50(3):607-609.
108. Sediqi, M. N. (2012) Adaptability of oilseed species at high altitudes of Colorado and technology transfer to Afghanistan. Colorado State University.
109. Seiter, N. J. (2009) Field and laboratory methods for estimating variant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) risk to rotated corn (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University).
110. Shahidi, F., Li, Q. (2014) Biologically active peptides from foods. Appl Food Protein Chem 6:75-98.
111. Sharma, A., Kumar, P., Kesari, P., Katiki, M., Mishra, M., K Singh, P, R Gurjar B, K Sharma A, Tomar S, Kumar P. (2017) Purification and characterization of 2s albumin from seeds of wrightia tinctoria exhibiting antibacterial and dnase activity. Protein Pept Lett 24(4):368-378.
112. Sharma, G. M., Mundoma, C., Seavy, M., Roux, K. H., Sathe, S. K. (2010) Purification and biochemical characterization of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa L.) seed storage proteins. J Agric Food Chem 58(9):5714-5723.
113. Shimada, T., Hara-Nishimura, I. (2017) Isolation of protein storage vacuoles and their membranes. Isolation of Plant Organelles and Structures: Methods Mol Biol 1511:163-168.
114. Singh, A., Meena, M., Kumar, D., Dubey, A. K., Hassan, M. I. (2015) Structural and functional analysis of various globulin proteins from soy seed. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(11):1491-1502.
115. Singh, A., Selvakumar, P., Saraswat, A., PS Tomar, P., Mishra, M., K Singh, P., K Sharma, A. (2015) Character-ization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata. Protein Pept Lett 22(8):750-761.
116. Singh, K. (2012) Phytochemical determination and antibacterial activity of trichosanthes dioica roxb (patal), Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) and Abelmoschus esculentus moench (okra) plant seeds (Doctoral dissertation).
117. Soltero, B. H. (2013) The production of protein isolates from the aqueous extraction of de-hulled yellow mustard flour and determination of their functional properties (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)).
118. Suliman, H. A. I. (2015) Determination of aflatoxin in peanut and sesame cakes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (Doctoral dissertation, Sudan University of Science and Technology).
119. Sumaya Hassan Abdel Rahim, E. (2015) Mechanical expression of oil from sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Seeds (Doctoral dissertation, UOFK).
120. Tang, W. (2015) Hypoglycemic effects of stilbene glycoside from polygonum multiflorum in type 2 diabetes and its mechanism of action (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick).
121. Tan-Wilson, A. L., Wilson, K. A. (2012) Mobilization of seed protein reserves. Physiol Plant 145(1):140-153.
122. Te Riet, L., van Esch, J. H., Roks, A. J., van den Meiracker, A. H., Danser, A. J. (2015) Hypertension. Circ Res 116(6):960-975.
123. Teh, H. F., Neoh, B. K., Ithnin, N., Daim, L. D. J., Ooi, T. E. K., Appleton, D. R. (2017) Omics and strategic yield improvement in oil crops. J Am Oil Chem Soc 94(10):1-20.
124. Tomar, P. P. S., Nikhil, K., Singh, A., Selvakumar, P., Roy, P., Sharma, A. K. (2014) Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 448(4):349-354.
125. Vajravijayan, S., Nandhagopal, N., Gunasekaran, K. (2017) Crystal structure determination and analysis of 11S coconut allergen: Cocosin. Mol Immunol 92:132-135.
126. Wada, Y., Lönnerdal, B. (2014) Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins—mechanisms of action. J Nutr Biochem 25(5):503-514.
127. Wanasundara, J. P., McIntosh, T. C. (2013) U.S. Patent No. 8,557,963. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
128. Wang, X., Gao, A., Chen, Y., Zhang, X., Li, S., Chen, Y. (2017) Preparation of cucumber seed peptide-calcium chelate by liquid state fermentation and its characterization. Food Chem 229:487-494.
129. Woldring, H. (2015) On the origin ofplums: a study of sloe, damson, cherry plum, domestic plums and their intermediate forms. Palaeohistoria 39:535-562.
130. Yanmife, M. O. (2016) Use of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) tubers as a nutritional additive to the diet of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings (Doctoral dissertation, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana).
131. Yoneyama, T., Tanno, F., Tatsumi, J., Mae, T. (2016) Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis. Frontiers in plant science 7.
132. Yu, Z., Liu, B., Zhao, W., Yin, Y., Liu, J., Chen, F. (2012) Primary and secondary structure of novel ACE-inhibitory peptides from egg white protein. Food Chem 133(2):315-322.
133. Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Sheng, W., Wang, S., Fu, T. J. (2016) Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. Food Chem 199:856-861.
134. Zhang, Z., Wu, J., Shang, Z., Wang, C., Cheng, J., Qian, X, Xiao Y, Xu Z, Yang Y. (2016) Photocalibrated NO release from N-Nitrosated napthalimides upon one-photon or two-photon irradiation. Anal Chem 88(14):7274-7280.
135. Zhao, L., Chen, Y., Chen, Y., Kong, X., Hua, Y. (2016) Effects of pH on protein components of extracted oil bodies from diverse plant seeds and endogenous protease-induced oleosin hydrolysis. Food Chem 200:125-133.
136. Zhu, Y. (2014) Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) DA Webb) fatty acids and tocopherols under different conditions (Doctoral dissertation). Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine 2014