• Review Article

    A Review on Techniques to Control and Mitigate Odors in Swine Facilities
    Halder, J. N. and M. G. Lee
    Malodor emission from livestock and manure production facilities is a persistent concern for researchers and farm owners. Intensive livestock production and manure ... + READ MORE
    Malodor emission from livestock and manure production facilities is a persistent concern for researchers and farm owners. Intensive livestock production and manure management have gained significant environmental attention; malodorous emissions are also a concern for livestock and human health. Several technologies, methods, and techniques have been developed in an attempt to resolve the concerns associated with malodorous emissions. Malodorous compounds consist of hundreds of chemical compounds; the most common compounds that humans can smell or sense are volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile fatty acids. Livestock production houses and manure storage and treatment facilities are key sources of malodorous gas emissions. Livestock feed, the animals themselves, and microbial reactions in the manure are all responsible for malodorous gas generation. The objective of this article is to review the sources of malodorous gas emissions, the common malodorous compounds, and the practices, techniques, and technologies that are used to mitigate the issues related to these emissions. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Macaron Development using Black Rice Bran Powder and Evaluation of the Quality Characteristics

    흑미 미강을 첨가한 기능성 마카롱 개발 및 품질특성 연구

    Park, S. J.

    박성진

    In this study, the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of macarons prepared with black rice bran powder (BRP; 0, 2, 4, 6 ... + READ MORE
    In this study, the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of macarons prepared with black rice bran powder (BRP; 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) were evaluated. When BRP was used, the macaron water content decreased gradually and in proportion to the amount of BRP added. Increasing the amount of BRP decreased the lightness (L) and yellowness (b), but redness (a) increased. Textural analysis of the BRP macarons showed that the hardness increased as BRP was added, whereas the springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and brittleness decreased. The macaron with 6% BRP produced the highest scores for all of the items in the sensory test (e.g., color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability). The total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity increased with increasing amounts of BRP. The preparation of macarons with 6% BRP resulted in the highest quality. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Brassicaceae Sprouts Cultivated in the Plant Factory System
    Deepa, P., K. Sowndhararajan, and S. J. Park
    The Brassicaceae family contains a wide range of horticultural crops that constitute a major part of diets worldwide. The aim of this ... + READ MORE
    The Brassicaceae family contains a wide range of horticultural crops that constitute a major part of diets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some Brassicaceae sprouts (red radish, red kohlrabi, pink and red cabbage, tatsoi, and broccoli) and their commercial vegetables. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of the sprouts exhibited higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities than those of the commercial vegetables, with the exception of tatsoi. Among the sprouts, broccoli (25.75 mg GAE/g extract) and tatsoi (6.522 mg GAE/g extract) showed the highest and lowest total phenolic contents, respectively. In regards to commercial vegetables, tatsoi contained the highest total phenolic (31.511 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (15.845 mg catechin/g extract) contents. For the antioxidant activity of sprouts, red radish showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 of 358 µg/mL) and 2,2'‐azinobis (3‐ethylbenzothiozoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (IC50 of 413 µg/mL) scavenging activities among all sprouts. For vegetables, red cabbage exhibited the highest DPPH (IC50 of 615 µg/mL) and ABTS (578 µg/mL) radical scavenging activities among all vegetables. We observed the lowest DPPH and ABTS activities in pink cabbage vegetables, with IC50 values of 8,989 and 8,304 µg/mL, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the tested Brassicaceae sprouts are a good dietary source of phenolic compounds with appreciable antioxidant potential. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Eutrophication Patterns of Mid- and Downstream Regions of the Urban Gongji Stream during the Dry Season

    춘천 도시하천 공지천의 중ㆍ하류 갈수기 부영양화 특성 분석

    Jeong, D. S. and E. M. Hong

    정동성, 홍은미

    As urban river basins are exposed to various sources of pollution, their water quality may change rapidly. In particular, during the dry ... + READ MORE
    As urban river basins are exposed to various sources of pollution, their water quality may change rapidly. In particular, during the dry season, when the flow rate is reduced, eutrophication may easily lead to water pollution. Spatial variations in eutrophication patterns between the mid- and downstream regions of the urban Gongji stream, located at the center of Chuncheon, have been reported. Therefore, it is essential to assess the spatial characteristics through frequent on-site monitoring for efficient water quality management. In this study, eutrophication patterns of the mid- and downstream regions of the Gongji stream during dry season were assessed through on-site monitoring and water quality parameters were analyzed. Following eutrophication, overgrowth of attached algae occurred due to increased water temperature in the midstream region and overgrowth of phytoplankton due to altered hydraulic residence time occurred in the downstream region. Specifically, DO supersaturation caused by the overgrowth of attached algae in the midstream region reflected high diurnal DO fluctuations. Despite its similarity in shape with the nearby Uiam Lake, the downstream region showed differences in eutrophication patterns. Additional studies and management plans are warranted to control eutrophication of urban streams. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Prevalence of Campylobacter in Retail Raw Chickens and their Motility Phenotypes in South Korea
    Kim, J. S., N. B. Y. Jeong, B. Y. Kim, S. Mun, E. S. Lim and O. K. Koo
    Campylobacter is a major food-borne pathogenic bacterium commonly found in poultry, including chickens. Therefore, it is necessary to study its prevalence among ... + READ MORE
    Campylobacter is a major food-borne pathogenic bacterium commonly found in poultry, including chickens. Therefore, it is necessary to study its prevalence among commercially available chickens. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter among commercially available raw whole chickens from three different sources, and chicken cuts from four different sources. Campylobacter was isolated from 23/30 (77%) whole chickens and 22/30 (73%) chicken cuts, with a 75% prevalence in total. Among the positive samples of whole chickens, C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated from 12 and 11 samples, respectively. In chicken cuts, the prevalence of C. coli was much lower at 4/30 samples (13%) than that of C. jejuni, which was isolated from 18/30 (60%) samples. The isolates were tested for motility as a virulence phenotype and compared to two human clinical strains, C. jejuni 11168 and 81-176. Compared to strain 11168, which was used as a control group with a motility index of 1.0, the mean motility index of the group of chicken isolates was 0.75. This was significantly lower than that of strain 11168 (P < 0.05), but similar to that of strain 81-176 (motility index of 0.74), a highly virulent strain. A high motility index (>1.0) was found only in C. jejuni. This study suggests that raw retail chickens continue to pose a significant threat to public health, and safe handling measures are necessary to prevent Campylobacter-associated food-borne illness among consumers. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant Effects of Populus Tomentiglandulosa Extracts in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Sprague Dawley Rats을 이용한 현사시나무 추출물의 항산화 효능 평가

    Choi, S. I., O. H. Lee and J. D. Kim

    최선일, 이옥환, 김종대

    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential and free radical generation ability of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ... + READ MORE
    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential and free radical generation ability of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SD rats were fed a diet supplemented with 0.5% PT extract, as recommended by American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) for 4 weeks. Free radical generation and antioxidant potentials in the blood were measured at 2-week intervals. After 4 weeks, weight gain in the PT extract-fed group was significantly higher than that in the negative control group. However, food intake, food efficiency ratio, and weight index were not significantly different between the groups. The blood antioxidative potentials in the PT extract-fed group were higher than those in the negative control group. Free radical generation in the blood in the ascorbic acid-fed group was higher than that in the negative control group. These results suggest that supplementation with Populus tomentiglandulosa extract had beneficial effects on antioxidant potential. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Bread Containing Codonopsis lanceolata Powder

    더덕분말 첨가에 따른 모닝빵의 품질 특성 및 항산화 특성

    Lee, S. H.

    이선호

    This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of bread containing Codonopsis lanceolate powder (CLP). CLP was added ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of bread containing Codonopsis lanceolate powder (CLP). CLP was added to bread at the levels of 0, 3, 6, and 9% of wheat flour. The moisture content of bread decreased with increasing CLP content. As the amount of CLP increased, the pH decreased, but the acidity increased. Increasing the amount of CLP in bread decreased lightness (L) and redness (a), but increased yellowness (b). Textural analysis of CLP bread showed that hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness increased as CLP levels increased, whereas adhesiveness and cohesiveness decreased as CLP levels increased. Sensory test revealed that 6% CLP bread showed the highest scores for flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity increased with increasing amount of CLP. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Design of Riding-type Simple Power Cart for Asparagus Harvesting

    아스파라거스 수확작업을 위한 간이형 승용 동력운반차 설계

    Hwang, S. J., P. G. Sim, M. K. Jang and J. S. Nam

    황석준, 심판교, 장문경, 남주석

    Asparagus has recently been recognized as a high-value vegetable, and its production and cultivation areas are increasing every year. However, the mechanization ... + READ MORE
    Asparagus has recently been recognized as a high-value vegetable, and its production and cultivation areas are increasing every year. However, the mechanization rate of asparagus cultivation is relatively lower than that of other crops; indeed, farmers still harvest asparagus by hand. In this study, a riding-type simple power cart that can be used for loading and transporting was developed. The transporting velocity and loading capacity of the riding-type simple power cart were selected based on the requirements of farmers. The main components of the riding-type simple power cart were selected, and the power transmission path was analyzed accordingly. Structural analysis was performed using commercial software. The riding-type simple power cart could travel forward and backward and could move at a velocity of 0.15 m/s. The maximum loading capacity was 784.8 N. This riding-type simple power cart is expected to reduce the labor load and increase the operational efficiency required for harvesting operations in asparagus farms. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Insecticidal Effect of Surfactant (Dish Detergent) on Onion Thrips in Asparagus

    계면활성제(주방용 세제)를 이용한 아스파라거스 파총채벌레 방제효과

    Jeon, S. J., J. K. Lee, J. H. Lee, K. H. Kim and S. K. Kim

    전신재, 이준기, 이준호, 김건혁, 김삼규

    Thrips are among the most important pests of asparagus. The most effective method to control this pest is to regularly apply insecticides ... + READ MORE
    Thrips are among the most important pests of asparagus. The most effective method to control this pest is to regularly apply insecticides. A total of 152 pesticides have been registered for the control of asparagus pests. However, asparagus are harvested on a daily basis, and the application of insecticides to control thrips during harvest season is not ideal due to the residual effect of the insecticide used. In this study, the efficacy of dish detergent was tested against onion thrips, a major pest of fresh asparagus in Gangwon province, South Korea. The detergent treatment showed that 82% and 93% of onion thrips were controlled (i.e., were either killed or expelled from the spear) by the detergent treatment at both low temperature (4°C) and room temperature (22°C), compared to 30.2% and 52.5% by the control water treatment, respectively. Nonetheless, though detergent can be used to control thrips in asparagus, approximately 8 dead thrips remained in the asparagus spear heads. Thus, thorough washing using water with high pressure is recommended to remove dead thrips from the asparagus spear heads. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Cookies Prepared Using Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata) Powder

    땅콩호박 분말 첨가 쿠키의 품질특성 및 항산화 연구

    Shin, E. H., A. R. Song and J. W. Ham

    신언환, 송아람, 함장원

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity ofcookies prepared using butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata, BS) powder ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity ofcookies prepared using butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata, BS) powder. Cookies were prepared using different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9, and 16% of the flour quantity) of BS powder. Cookies were subjected to several physicochemical analyses (cookie dough density, pH, moisture content, spread factor, hardness, and antioxidant activity) and evaluated for consumer acceptance by sensory analysis. The pH and density of the cookie dough decreased as the amount of BS powder increased. The moisture content and spread factor were higher in the cookies containing BS powder than those in the control cookies. Furthermore, the L-value decreased with an increasing amount of hibiscus powder, while the a-value and b-value increased. Moreover, the incorporation of BS powder decreased the hardness of the cookies, and the polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with an increase in BS powder content. The sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared using 6% BS powder were preferred the most in terms of color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Therefore, this study suggests that cookies prepared by incorporating BS powder have high value as a functional food source and are likely to be used as ingredients for the development of healthy foods and other products. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    A Comparison of the Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Korean and Taiwan-cultivated Cabbages

    양배추 국내 품종과 대만 재배 품종의 특성 및 저장성 비교

    Choi, I. L., J. H. Lee, L. Wang, Y. H. Roh, B. H. Hwang, H. M. Kang and S. J. Jeon

    최인이, 이주환, 왕 립, 노유한, 황병호, 강호민, 전신재

    This study compared the quality characteristics and storage properties of ten cabbage varieties to select the Korean varieties suitable for export to ... + READ MORE
    This study compared the quality characteristics and storage properties of ten cabbage varieties to select the Korean varieties suitable for export to Taiwan. Four domestic commercial varieties, four domestic semi-commercial varieties, and two Taiwan-cultivated varieties were grown in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea, and the quality before and after harvesting and after 30-day low-temperature storage was compared. There was no difference in the sugar content and color between the Korean and Taiwanese varieties. Taiwanese consumers dislike firm Korean cabbage varieties, but the firmnesses of the Korean ‘Shinsegae’ and ‘CT-623’ varieties were similar to the Taiwanese varieties. After 30 days of low-temperature storage, the Korean varieties ‘CT-623’ and ‘11C2346’ (which had the lowest firmness) looked better than the Taiwanese varieties (including ‘Chauchiou’). The correlation between cabbage quality before and after storage and visual quality was also investigated. The hunter a* value (r = -0.646) and firmness value (r = 0.625) were strongly correlated with quality after storage. Firmness before storage was not significantly correlated with firmness and visual quality after storage. These results indicate that the Taiwanese export varieties ‘CT-623’ and ‘11C2346’, which are slightly more firm, were more suited for a long storage period and distribution. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Validation of Analytical Method of Pectolinarin for Standardized Cirsium setidens Fine Powder by Air-Classification

    공기분급을 이용한 곤드레 미세분말의 Pectolinarin성분 분석법 검증

    Park, S. J., H. D. Kim and Y. H. Lee

    박성진, 김현덕, 이윤환

    This study aimed to validate the determination of pectolinarin from standardized Cirsium setidens fine powder by air classification. High-performance liquid chromatography was ... + READ MORE
    This study aimed to validate the determination of pectolinarin from standardized Cirsium setidens fine powder by air classification. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). From the calibration curve, we obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.9979 for pectolinarin. The inter-day and intra-day precision values of pectolinarin ranged from 0.28% to 2.35%. The inter-day and intra-day accuracies were 90.20-115.62% and 90.63.113.05%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for pectolinarin were 0.11.µg/mL and 0.34. µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the analytical method was validated for the detection of pectolinarin from air-classified Cirsium setidens fine powder. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Principal Component Analysis-based Genome-wide Association Study for Detecting Candidate Genes Associated with Various Traits in Rice

    다양한 형질 관련 후보유전자 동정을 위한 주성분 분석 기반 GWAS

    Lee, J. K. and S. G. Hwang

    이준경, 황선구

    In this study, we attempted to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to agronomic traits via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we attempted to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to agronomic traits via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using principal component analysis (PCA). We confirmed the normally distributed traits in each PC, suggesting that the PCs were suitable for GWAS. We found 2,527,855 SNPs and 381,681 indels among 26 rice varieties. The PC1 was showed 22 significant missense SNPs associated with three traits (leaf blight disease, rice stripe disease, and gains per panicle). Especially, three of 22 missense SNPs had the highest significance in GWAS for each trait. The 06g0587200 gene associated with gain per panicle belongs to two QTLs: qtl1-5 corresponding to the length and width of grains and Tgw6.1 corresponding to the thousand-grain weight. The two candidate genes (Os01g0858000 implicated in rice stripe disease and Os03g0165000 implicated in leaf blight disease) were newly detected in this study. However, further studies are required to confirm the exact function of these two genes. Thus, GWAS based on PCA can be used to find a key gene corresponding to various traits. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
  • Research Article

    Awareness and Pesticide Use Patterns of Farmers after Positive List System (PLS) Implementation

    PLS 전ㆍ후 농업인 인식실태 및 농약사용 패턴변화 조사

    Lee, Y, D., I. Ahn, I. A. Lee, M. K. Jung, J. H. Choi and J. H. Joo

    이영돈, 안 인, 이인애, 정문기, 최정호, 주진호

    Following the full implementation of the Positive List System (PLS) for all the crops in 2019, the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of ... + READ MORE
    Following the full implementation of the Positive List System (PLS) for all the crops in 2019, the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of pesticides was established as 0.01 ppm. However, earlier PLS systems for nut and tropical crops carried out in 2016 showed that 6% of crops exceeded this residue limit (0.01 ppm), in comparison to 1.7% in 2015. In addition, farmers were worried about minor crops, as an MRL was not established for many of these. The aim of this survey was therefore to increase awareness of PLS and patterns of pesticide application after PLS implementation through questionnaire for farmers. We surveyed 542 and 109 vegetable farmers in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces to figure out awareness of PLS, and pesticide application patterns, respectively. 96% of farmers understand the PLS system, and they believed that PLS has more positive than negative effects. However, 19% of farmers answered that registered pesticides for crops were not sufficient to follow up on PLS. For patterns of the pesticide use for 20 crops after PLS, farmers applied pesticides 5.6 times compared to 5.5 times before PLS, which represents an increase of only 0.1%. In addition, 69% of farmers followed the recommended dilution rate for pesticide safety use criteria. The cost for pesticide purchase slightly increased after PLS due to recommended pesticide use and organic substance use. According to surveys for awareness of PLS and pesticide use patterns, PLS could positively influence farmers and agricultural products for safety. - COLLAPSE
    December 2020
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