• Research Article

    Development of Species-specific Primer Sets for Detecting Cirsium setidens and Silybum marianum using Real-time PCR Assay and Their Application in Commercial Food Products
    An, J., G. S. Kim and C. S. Jang
    Cirsium setidens and Silybum marianum are medicinal plants that have been recently recognized as highly valuable sources of herbal drugs in Korea ... + READ MORE
    Cirsium setidens and Silybum marianum are medicinal plants that have been recently recognized as highly valuable sources of herbal drugs in Korea as well as worldwide. However, molecular markers for detecting these species in commercial food products have not yet been reported. In this study, we developed six species-specific primer sets for C. setidens and S. marianum using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four chloroplast genes (ndhA, ndhF, rbcL and ycf1). The developed primer pairs showed correlation coefficients for their target species only (R2 > 0.99), and their efficiencies and slopes were in the range of 93-103% and -3.23 to -3.49, respectively. A total of 12 commercial food products including seven for C. setidens and 5 for S. marianum were tested to evaluate the feasibility of the developed primer sets. We found that C. setidens was present in all the seven C. setidens commercial products, while presence of S. marianum was confirmed in four of five S. marianum products. Therefore, the developed species-specific primer sets could prove a useful tool for detecting the presence of C. setidens and S. marianum in commercial food products. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Chemical Properties of Asparagus-cultivating Soils in Korea

    전국 아스파라거스 재배농가의 토양 화학적 특성

    Jeon, S. J., S. J. Heo, K. J. Park, W. K. Lee, K. W. Kim, J. H. Lee and N. Y. Eum

    전신재, 허수정, 박기진, 이원경, 김경원, 이재희, 엄남용

    This study was conducted to analyze the soil chemical properties of asparagus farmers and to establish future soil management standards. The average ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to analyze the soil chemical properties of asparagus farmers and to establish future soil management standards. The average soil chemistry of asparagus farms are pH 6.1, EC 3.7 dS/m-1, OM 40.5 g/kg-1, effective phosphate 1,118 mg/kg-1, calcium 10.7 cmol+/kg-1, potassium 2.4, and magnesium 3.2. Overall, the content of EC, OM, phosphoric acid and substituting cations in the soil were high, and the pH was in the proper range. There was a big difference in soil chemistry by region. These differences were attributed to soil characteristics, methods, and year of cultivation. Especially in Dangiin, soil EC was high at 12.6 dS/m-1. It was judged that this was due to the continuous application of compost and cultivation of livestock manure liquid fertilizer with the cultivation year of more than 8 years. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Packaging Methods and Storage Temperatures on the Logistics Quality of Dried Persimmons

    포장방법과 저장온도가 곶감의 물류품질 향상에 미치는 영향

    Hong, S. T.

    홍상태

    The dried persimmons during distribution was produced fungi, white powder at surface of dried persimmons and also develop browning, hardening. So farmers ... + READ MORE
    The dried persimmons during distribution was produced fungi, white powder at surface of dried persimmons and also develop browning, hardening. So farmers was difficult to sales. To resolve such problem in commercial value preservation, the research was conducted to measure the quality changes of dried persimmons storage at 5°C during 160 days and storage at 20°C during 100 days. The rate of weight loss, fungi, browning, hardening at N/LDPE package was lower among packaging methods. Those of functional MA film was lower than that of N/LDPE, but when we consider the price of N/LDPE film, functional MA film also was recommended to be a good new packaging methods. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Chemical Properties of Soils and Yield of Asparagus as Affected by Potassium Nitrogen Fertilizer

    질소칼리 시비량에 따른 토양 화학성 및 아스파라거스 수량 반응

    Heo, S. J., S. J. Jeon, K. J. Park, W. K. Lee, K. W. Kim, J. H. Lee and N. Y. Eum

    허수정, 전신재, 박기진, 이원경, 김경원, 이재희, 엄남용

    Asparagus is being increasingly consumed and cultivated every year in Korea. However, since the harvest is only possible three years after planting ... + READ MORE
    Asparagus is being increasingly consumed and cultivated every year in Korea. However, since the harvest is only possible three years after planting, studies on this crop are limited. Asparagus is known to be highly resistant to soil salinity. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the yield of asparagus based on the amount of potassium nitrogen (NK) fertilizer applied and obtain basic data on soil management during asparagus cultivation. The yield of asparagus were 1.39 kg /m2 and 1.27 kg/m2 respectively, when treated with treatment of NK fertilizer 10.4 kg/10 a, 20.8 kg/10 a. The concentrations of electrical conductivity (EC), nitrogen, and potassium were found to increase with increasing NK fertilizer application. Analysis of soil solution in test tubes treated with 2.0 times NK fertilizer showed that nitrates increased to 1,180 mg/L and potassium to 4,057 mg/L respectively. Therefore, 20.8 kg/10 a of fertilizer used by farmers is thought to be the maximum amount not to fall in yield. Asparagus farmers should pay attention to periodic soil analysis and salt damage, and also conduct annual tests. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Complete Genome Sequence and Biological Properties of Cucumber mosaic virus-Sp Strain in Pepper

    Cucumber mosaic virus-Sp 계통의 전체 염기서열 및 고추에서의 생물학적 특성 분석

    Park, T. S., J. W. You, J. S. Park, D. J. Min and J. S. Hong

    박태선, 유재원, 박지수, 민동주, 홍진성

    Cucumber mosaic virus-Sp isolate (CMV-Sp) is isolated from Solanum pseudocapsicum, also called the Jerusalem Cherry. The responses of host plants to CMV-Sp ... + READ MORE
    Cucumber mosaic virus-Sp isolate (CMV-Sp) is isolated from Solanum pseudocapsicum, also called the Jerusalem Cherry. The responses of host plants to CMV-Sp were similar to CMV-Fny. CMV-Sp induced mosaic-like symptoms on Capsicum annuum ‘Bukang’, whereas, CMV-Fny did not systemically infect the plant. To analyze the nucleotide sequence of CMV-Sp, we conducted a complete genome sequencing and multiple alignment analysis, together with other CMV isolates. The results show that CMV-Sp had the highest homologies with CMV pepper isolates. In addition, the sequences of five ORFs (1a, 2a, 2b, movement protein, and coat protein) of CMV-Sp were compared to six CMV pepper isolates. The 1a, 2a, MP, and CP genes of CMV-Sp showed more than 98.3%, 98.8%, 93.2% and 96.8%, respectively identity with CMV pepper isolates at the amino acid level. The 2b protein gene of CMV-Sp showed less than 97.3% identity with other CMV pepper isolates. To confirm the genetic variation of 2b, we aligned and compared the amino acid sequences between 2b proteins. It was found that 2b protein was specifically changed from the conserved domain (22KKQRRR27) of the nuclear localization sequence 1 (NLS1) to 22KKQKQR27. Based on host response and sequence analysis, biological properties of CMV-Sp were tested on various pepper cultivars with CMV-Fny (P0 type) and CMV-CaCh1 (P1 type). CMV-Sp and CMV-CaCh1 systemically infected all pepper cultivars, in contrast to CMV-Fny. These results have led to the conclusion that genetic and biological properties of CMV-Sp are closely related to CMV pepper isolates. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Genome Sequence and Biological Properties of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Isolates from Gynura procumbens

    명월초에서 분리한 Broad bean wilt virus 2 분리주들의 염기서열 분석과 기주반응 비교

    Choi, S. A., T. S. Park, J. S. Park, D. J. Min and J. S. Hong

    최성안, 박태선, 박지수, 민동주, 홍진성

    Gynura procumbens (Myeongwolcho or longevity spinach) showing virus-like mosaic and yellowing symptoms was collected in Chuncheon. To identify the virus from G ... + READ MORE
    Gynura procumbens (Myeongwolcho or longevity spinach) showing virus-like mosaic and yellowing symptoms was collected in Chuncheon. To identify the virus from G. procumbens, RT-PCR analysis was performed using several genus-specific primers sets. BBWV2-Gyp was identified from the amplified target product using Fabavirus genus-specific primers. BBWV2- Gyp had a similar host range pattern to BBWV2–SN that has already reported in G. procumbens. BBWV2-Gyp induced systemic mosaic and BBWV2-SN induced systemic necrotic spots on Phaseolus angularis. To investigate the sequence specificity, BBWV2-Gyp RNA2 was sequenced and compared with other BBWV2 isolates. Sequence homologies and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that BBWV2-Gyp had the closest relationship to BBWV2-SN. Also, BBWV2- Gyp had 98.5%, 98.8% and 98.5% homologies with movement protein (MP), large coat protein (LCP) and small coat protein (SCP) segments, respectively, of BBWV2-SN at amino acid level. Although two BBWV2 isolates from G. procumbens have high nucleotide sequence similarity (99%), they have distinct biological properties. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Storage Temperature on Glycoalkaloid Content, Acrylamide Formation, and Processing-related Variables of Potato Cultivars
    Tilahun, S., H. S. An, H. R. Choi, D. S. Park, J. S. Lee and C. S. Jeong
    Processing-related quality parameters and total glycoalkaloid content of tubers of ‘Atlantic’ and ‘Solbong’ potato cultivars were evaluated over a 12-week storage period ... + READ MORE
    Processing-related quality parameters and total glycoalkaloid content of tubers of ‘Atlantic’ and ‘Solbong’ potato cultivars were evaluated over a 12-week storage period at 10°C and 20°C with 85-90% relative humidity in the darkness. Also, data on color, acrylamide formation, and overall sensory responses were collected after processing into chips. Our study revealed that both cultivars had high dry matter content and specific gravity and were suitable for extended storage without significant deterioration in processing quality. Nevertheless, storage temperature interactions significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the storage quality of the tubers and affected the quality of potato chips. Chips produced from ‘Solbong’ tubers stored at 10°C had a brighter color and low acrylamide formation. It was also observed that there was a progressive increase in total glycoalkaloid content in both cultivars during the storage period, particularly at 20°C. However, it did not exceed the safe upper limit for human consumption. Interestingly, the tubers of both cultivars stored at 10°C were suitable for processing without leading to high α-solanine and α-chaconine levels for 12 weeks. Besides, the acrylamide formation in both cultivars was kept low by storage at 10°C. Hence, storing tubers of ‘Atlantic’ and ‘Solbong’ under 10°C with 85-90% relative humidity in darkness could prolong the shelf life of tubers without affecting the nutritional quality during processing. Further studies on other cultivars for extended storage periods are necessary to strengthen our findings. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Case Study: The Effect of Shade on the RGB Images Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Crop Evaluation
    Jang, G. J., J. Y. Kim, R. R. Silva, Y. H. Kim, H. J. Kim and Y. S. Chung
    Crop evaluation requires various information, which is collected manually. These manual data collection methods are labor intensive and error prone. However, the ... + READ MORE
    Crop evaluation requires various information, which is collected manually. These manual data collection methods are labor intensive and error prone. However, the new research area, called phenomics, has been developed significantly to deal with these issues. Yet, it has many technical issues to should be considered. One of these issues is the occurrence of shadow images. When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) captures images in the field, there is always the chance that shadow images will occur due to cloud or trees. It may or may not cause different RGB data to be relayed, which can influence results and therefore conclusions in crop evaluation strategies. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the extent of the differences between the shadow and no-shadow images obtained by UAVs. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effects of Ginseng Sprout Extract and Modified Kyung-Ok-Ko on Scopolamine-induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice

    스코폴라민 유도 기억력 손상 모델에서 새싹산양삼과 이를 포함한 경옥고 가미방의 기억력 개선 효과

    Park, H. B., S. Y. Kim and S. J. Park

    현배, 김소연, 박세진

    As the world population ages, the number of patients with dementia is expected to increase dramatically in the future. Ginseng (Panax ginseng ... + READ MORE
    As the world population ages, the number of patients with dementia is expected to increase dramatically in the future. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has many effects such as control of nerve function, control of body fluids and metabolic function, anti-diuretic, sexual enhancement, resistance to stress, improvement of digestion and absorption, and immune boosting effects. Kyung-Ok-Ko is widely used in traditional Korean medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate memory-enhancing properties of 70% ethanolic extracts of ginseng sprouts and modified Kyung-Ok-Ko. Alzheimer’s disease was induced by scopolamine treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. Passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks were performed by the mice to determine the effects of ginseng sprout extract and modified Kyung-Ok-Ko on memory. Ginseng sprout extract and modified Kyung-Ok-Ko significantly enhanced cognitive function and reduced scopolamine- induced cognitive impairment in mice. Compared to Kyung-Ok-Ko, modified Kyung-Ok-Ko had a significant memory-enhancing effect at a lower dose. Our findings suggest that ginseng sprout extract and modified Kyung-Ok-Ko attenuate cognitive impairment in mice. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Improving the Aglycon Isoflavone Content in Soybean Leaf Extracts by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    젖산균 발효를 통한 콩잎 추출물의 비배당체 이소플라본 함량 증대

    Kwun, S. Y., J. A. Yoon, E. H. Park and M. D. Kim

    권세영, 윤정아, 박은희, 김명동

    A total of 112 lactic acid bacteria species were isolated from Kimchi prepared in Gangwon-do. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a MSL129 strain with the ... + READ MORE
    A total of 112 lactic acid bacteria species were isolated from Kimchi prepared in Gangwon-do. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a MSL129 strain with the highest β-glucosidase activity, was selected and identified by a sequence analysis of a 16S rRNA gene. The β-glucosidase activity of the Leu. mesenteroides MSL129 strain increased gradually with increases in reaction temperature. The optimum conditions for enzyme activity was at 45°C and pH 6.0. Bioconversion of soybean leaf extracts by the Leu. mesenteroides MSL129 strain yielded approximately three times higher levels of daidzein than the Leu. mesenteroides KCTC13388 strain. Leu. mesenteroides MSL129, an excellent bacterial selection for converting daidzin to daidzein in soybean extracts, was deposited as KCTC13578BP to the Korean Collection for Type Culture (KCTC). - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Young Farmers’ Interest in Succession and Difficulties

    농업 경영승계자의 승계 관심도와 승계 과정의 애로사항

    Jeong, J. W. and H. K. You

    정재원, 유홍규

    In this paper, it is considered that the activation of agricultural succession is an alternative to solve the sustainability problem in Korea ... + READ MORE
    In this paper, it is considered that the activation of agricultural succession is an alternative to solve the sustainability problem in Korea rural community. For this, this study examined the current status of agricultural management succession, and, in the process of succession, analyzed the difficulty the successors had experienced in and the degree of succession objectives they had achieved. From empirical analysis, the next generations were significantly less interested in succession before finishing the process. Nevertheless, whether to decide the succession is the purpose of using the personal time freely as well as that of earning a high income. They complained about the lack of cultural and welfare facilities as well as that of young farmers in the region, but are satisfied with the free time and high income they expected before succession. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the interest in succession by focusing on the merits of agriculture that future generations will be interested in and providing a vision of achieving high income. In addition, in areas where agricultural labor forces are rapidly shrinking and aging, policy efforts should be made to expand the facilities and eventually to attract young agricultural workers. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
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