• Review Article

    Review on the Physiochemical Characteristics and Functionality of Kimchi Mixed with Additives

    첨가물을 혼합한 김치의 이화화적 특성과 기능성에 대한 문헌 연구

    Yoon, J. A., J. H. Kim, S. Y. Kwun, H. Y. Lee, E. H. Park and M. D. Kim

    윤정아, 김주형, 권세영, 이하연, 박은희, 김명동

    In this study, we investigated physiochemical characteristics and functionality of kimchi mixed with various additives such as mustard leaf, angelica leaf, hooker ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated physiochemical characteristics and functionality of kimchi mixed with various additives such as mustard leaf, angelica leaf, hooker chives, yangha, mistletoe, pine needle, wild vegetables extract, oriental melon peel, green tea, yacon, potato, brown rice, black rice, sesame, abalone, black garlic, harvey, sea tangle, sea trumpet, anchovy, flying fish roe, blue crab, and etc. The type of additive to kimchi have affected reducing sugar, pH, acidity, free amino acid content, antioxidant activity, anti-mutagenic activity, and anti-carcinogenic activity. Reducing sugar content increased in kimchi mixed with harvey, sea trumpet, hooker chives, sesame, anchovy. kimchi mixed with yacon, black rice, hooker chives, sesame, anchovy extended optimum fermenting stage by changing acidity slowly. Free amino acid content increased phenylalanine in kimchi with pine needle, proline in kimchi with blue cab, glutamic acid and aspartic acid in kimchi sea tangle and flying fish roe. Brown rice, green tea, pumpkin, black rice, sesame, Yangha, wild vegetables extract significantly increased antioxidant activity. Mustard leaf, mistletoe and angelica leaf increased anti-mutagenic acid and anti-carcinogenic activity. In conclusion, kimchi mixed with additive compared with normal kimchi without additives helps the improvement of the physiochemical characteristics and functionality of kimchi. We expected that selection of proper additive used for kimchi production improves the quality of kimchi as a Korean traditional fermented food. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Physiology of Coffee Plants
    Vu, N. T., J. M. Park, A. T. Tran, T. K. Bui, D. C. Vu, D. C. Jang and I. S. Kim
    Water stress effects on the growth and physiology of three coffee species, arabica, robusta, and liberica, were investigated. Unlike in plants that ... + READ MORE
    Water stress effects on the growth and physiology of three coffee species, arabica, robusta, and liberica, were investigated. Unlike in plants that had water supply, plant height, leaf length, and leaf width values decreased significantly in arabica and liberica in a water deficit condition but did not statistically differ in robusta coffee plants. The highest values of reduction in growth characteristics of coffee plants under water deficit condition were observed in arabica, but they did not significantly differ from those in robusta or liberica. The highest value of relative water content in a water deficit condition was observed in liberica, but it was similar to that of robusta. The SPAD value and Fv/Fm of all coffee species decreased significantly during the period without irrigation but increased significantly after re-watering. SPAD values of robusta and liberica in a water deficit condition were higher than those of arabica. The highest value of relative ion leakage during drought was observed in arabica. On the other hand, robusta generally appeared to be more vigorous than arabica and liberica, as shown by its relatively lower percentage of wilting plants and higher percentage of recovering plants. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Combining Ability and Gene Action Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Lilium × formolongi
    Rai, R., J. Shrestha and J. H. Kim
    To understand the breeding potential of parental lines, we analyzed the combining ability and gene action of 10 quantitative traits in Lilium ... + READ MORE
    To understand the breeding potential of parental lines, we analyzed the combining ability and gene action of 10 quantitative traits in Lilium × formolongi. The clonal lines of three single cross F1s were crossed with the clonal lines of six testers to produce 18 three-way cross F1s in a Line × Tester mating design. The analysis of variance revealed that the mean sum of square of all genotypes was highly significant for all the traits studied. The crosses, parents, and cross vs. parent revealed significant differences among all traits studied, except the width of leaf, validating the combining ability. Furthermore, the Line × Tester analysis demonstrated that the lines, testers, and Line × Tester hybrids were significant for all traits studied, except the length of leaf and attitude of floral axis. The highest GCA (General combining ability) effect was observed for parent-1 45-3 (AF × Ad), with a positive GCA effect for the height of plant, diameter of stem, number of leaves, length of bud, and attitude of floral axis followed by parent-3 (Stu × Ad)-14 with significant GCA effects for the height of plant, number of leaves, length of leaf, width of leaf, and number of flowers. Tester-1 Jul-19 demonstrated significant performance for the length and width of leaf, days to flowering, length of bud, and attitude of floral axis. It can be used as a potential donor for both parent-1 45-3 (AF × Ad) and parent-3 (Stu × Ad)-14 for seed production with some important cut flower traits inside a green house. The diameter of stem, number of leaves, width of leaf, number of flowers, diameter of flower, and length of bud predominantly showed dominance variance, whereas the height of plant, length of leaf, days to flowering, and attitude of floral axis demonstrated additive gene action. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients demonstrated that plant height is highly correlated with the diameter of stem, number of leaves, length of leaf, and number of flowers and correlated with the attitude of floral axis. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Development of a Plasma Sterilization System for Improved Storability of Paprika and Validation of Its Effects

    파프리카의 저장성 향상을 위한 플라즈마 살균 시스템 개발과 이의 효과 검정

    Kim, H. S., S. M. Go, R. D. Jeong, D. H. Kwon and M. R. Park

    김현승, 고선민, 정래동, 권덕호, 박미리

    Paprika is an important agricultural export in Korea. However, paprika is not suitable for exporting over long distances as it does not ... + READ MORE
    Paprika is an important agricultural export in Korea. However, paprika is not suitable for exporting over long distances as it does not store well. A major cause of damage to fresh agricultural produce, including paprika, is infection with pathogenic microorganisms that cause post-harvest diseases during storage and distribution. To address this problem, research is ongoing to develop a range of surface sterilization techniques. The recent confirmation of the sterilization effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from plasma discharge has attracted substantial research interest in applying the plasma technology to agriculture. Therefore, a plasma sterilization system was developed in this study to improve paprika storability. This system consists of an atmospheric-pressure plasma generator, a plasma controller, and a chamber for plasma treatment. To validate the system performance, the internal chamber temperature was measured; the volume of ozone, a strong oxidant that generates ROS, was also measured to compute the volume of all ROS generated through plasma discharge; based on this calculation, the concentration of ROS that can effectively deactivate microorganisms was identified. The sterilization effect of the present system was examined using Erwinia carotovora, the bacteria responsible for soft rot in paprika. Erwinia carotovora samples were treated with plasma for 30 and 60 s with 2.5 bar pressure and 500 W, 700 W, and 1000 W plasma power. The samples treated for 60 s showed a 100% sterilization effect. To then validate the effectiveness of the system in maintaining paprika freshness, paprika were treated at 1000 W plasma power for 30 and 60 s. As a result, browning was observed in the stem end of untreated paprika due to withering, whereas browning was delayed for 26 d in the stem end of plasma-treated paprika. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Isolation of Asparagus Crown and Root Rot Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and Evaluation of Fungicides for Disease Control

    아스파라거스 줄기썩음병 Fusarium oxysporum의 분리 및 살균제에 대한 생장 억제율 조사

    Shin, J. H., J. H. Han and K. S. Kim

    신종환, 한준희, 김경수

    Crown and root rot is a disease of asparagus caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We investigated several asparagus fields in ... + READ MORE
    Crown and root rot is a disease of asparagus caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We investigated several asparagus fields in Gangwon Province, confirmed a high incidence of crown and root rot of asparagus seedlings, and isolated pathogens from the asparagus seedlings. Based on the sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1, we confirmed that F. oxysporum is the most prevalent fungus causing disease in asparagus plants. We selected six fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, propiconazole, prochloraz, mancozeb, azoxystrobin, and kresoxim-methyl) and examined their effectiveness on the inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporum isolates. Prochloraz was the most effective fungicide showing >90% inhibition of mycelial growth at a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL. Propiconazole was also a highly effective fungicide with approximately 97% inhibition of mycelial growth at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. Mancozeb was the least effective fungicide with <10% inhibition of mycelial growth at a concentration of 10 µg/mL and approximately 43% inhibition at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Effect of Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment on Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea

    저온 대기압 플라즈마를 이용한 저장성병원균 Alternaria alternataBotrytis cinerea의 제어 효과

    Go, S. M., H. S. Kim, M. R. Park and R. D. Jeong

    고선민, 김현승, 박미리, 정래동

    Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) has been shown to be effective for controlling postharvest fungi in vitro, but little is known about its ... + READ MORE
    Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) has been shown to be effective for controlling postharvest fungi in vitro, but little is known about its mode of action, fungal response to NTAP, and the effect of its application on fresh produce. Non-thermal atmospheric plasma was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea on paprika. The treatment with NTAP treatment resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of A. alternata, and B. cinerea, particularly at 1000 W for 90 s. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that NTAP treatment for 90 s inhibited the growth of these fungal pathogens by approximately 55% (A. alternata) and 20% (B. cinerea). The color and hardness of paprika exhibited no significant changes during 7 days of storage after NTAP treatment. The mechanisms by which NTAP treatment decreased fungal growth on paprika were directly associated with the disruption of fungal cell membrane. These findings suggest that the application of NTAP is an effective antifungal treatment approach for preserving paprika. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Status of, and Improvements Needed in, Agricultural Microorganism Cultivation Centers in Korea

    전국 농업 미생물 배양 센터 운영 환경 및 개선방안

    Jeon, C. W., D. R. Kim, G. Cho, S. G. Lee and Y. S. Kwak

    전창욱, 김다란, 조경준, 이승규, 곽연식

    The use of biopesticides is regarded as an eco-friendly disease control measure in modern agriculture and is seen as a feasible replacement ... + READ MORE
    The use of biopesticides is regarded as an eco-friendly disease control measure in modern agriculture and is seen as a feasible replacement for chemical pesticides. Currently, South Korea has many regional microorganism culture centers that are operated with the support of the local governments. However, no in-depth investigation on the operational status and management of these centers has been performed. In this study, we surveyed and analyzed the operational status of 101 agricultural microorganism culture centers, nationwide. The results indicated that the academic majors of the managers of these centers tend to be unrelated to microorganisms, with very few managers possessing the appropriate academic background. The consequential lack of understanding of agricultural microorganisms has led to various problems in culture processes. Production of long-term storage constitutes a basic process for generating fundamental and foundational data for quality control; however, most of the centers did not produce stock cultures, citing sufficient supply of starter cultures. Additionally, although the centers considered culture media to be expensive, the majority did not have structured systems, such as for monitoring culture pH, propagation, and quality of culture media. Therefore, it can be concluded that adequate training is necessary for the managers of these culture centers and that a systematic management system must be implemented. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Changes in Health Functional Properties of Doenjang According to Additives

    첨가물에 따른 된장의 건강 기능성 변화

    Bea, Y. W., H. J. Kim, E. J. Kim, E. H. Park and M. D. Kim

    배영우, 김혜진, 김은정, 박은희, 김명동

    In this study, the physicochemical changes and fermentation characteristics of doenjang supplemented with additives including sweet tangle, sea mustard, anchovy powder, squid ... + READ MORE
    In this study, the physicochemical changes and fermentation characteristics of doenjang supplemented with additives including sweet tangle, sea mustard, anchovy powder, squid internal organs, licorice, mustard, chitosan, yam (Dioscorea batatas), sweet potato, bitter melon, shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and fermented hwangchil (Dendropanax morbifera) extract were compared and analyzed. We analyzed the levels of reducing sugars, amino acids, and nitrogen compounds, as well as changes in sensory, functional, and fermentative characteristics. The reducing sugar content increased when doenjang was mixed with sea mustard, anchovy, and shiitake mushroom, and decreased when mixed with garlic powder. The content of sweetness components like serine increased in doenjang with most of the additives. Doenjang mixed with fermented hwangchil extract and oyster powder had many delicate flavor components like glutamic acid. The content of bitter flavor components like leucine, isoleucine, and valine increased in doenjang with added Rhus verniciflua. The content of nitrogen compounds in doenjang increased with added garlic, anchovy, and shiitake mushroom powder, and decreased with yuza juice and oat powder. A low preference was observed for doenjang with additives that affected color and flavor, such as sea mustard powder and squid internal organs, whereas doenjang with licorice, mustard, chitosan, and lotus root powder showed a high preference in flavor. The total microbe of doenjang with sweet potato and bitter melon powder increased, and with addition of shiitake mushroom powder and decreased with added ginseng extract. As the additives were mixed with doenjang, most showed anticancer effects. Doenjang with shiitake mushroom powder elicited positive effects in people with diabetes and hypertension. The results indicate that additives help to improve the physicochemical, functional, and sensory characteristics of doenjang compared to doenjang without additives. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Efficiency of Wood Pellet Boilers with Nozzle-type Burner Pins on the Grate

    목재펠릿보일러 화격자 상 노즐형 버너핀의 적용에 따른 열효율 비교분석

    Kim, D. H., M. J. Kim, I. S. Jeong, L. H. Cho, C. G. Lee, W. H. Kim and S. H. Euh

    김대현, 김민준, 정인선, 조라훈, 이충건, 김운환, 어승희

    The main objective of this study was to improve the wood pellet boiler and overcome inefficient air supply to the grate in ... + READ MORE
    The main objective of this study was to improve the wood pellet boiler and overcome inefficient air supply to the grate in the combustion chamber. Nozzle-type burner pins were attached to the grate to increase the contact area between the solid fuel (pellets) in the grate and the supplied air. In order to verify the increase in thermal efficiency due to the nozzle-type burner pins, comparative experiments were conducted using the same two wood pellet boilers. Two hours of experiments were conducted under the same external conditions (amount of oxidizer, load, ambient temperature, and pellet consumption). The results showed that the combustion characteristics of the flue gas from the boiler with burner pins were improved compared to those of the conventional boiler: the carbon dioxide content was increased, and the thermal efficiency was increased by 2.51%. The contact area between the wood pellets in the grate and the air supply was increased by the nozzle-type burner pins; hence, this boiler showed an improved combustion performance compared to that of the conventional burner system. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
  • Research Article

    Economic and Agricultural Development after Transition in CIS Countries
    Kim, K. R., G. Sanaev and S. Babakholov
    After the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, 11 former Soviet Republics signed an agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States ... + READ MORE
    After the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, 11 former Soviet Republics signed an agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and each country is committed to its transition based on market economy. The significant differences among the CIS countries can be observed at the levels of economic welfare, employment, and labor forces. In this study, we review the economic and agricultural situation in the CIS countries at the macro level during the transition. We also review the agricultural development in each country, including reformations, agricultural production, and marketing system with the SWOT analysis. Finally, we summarize the potential and strategies of each country for agricultural cooperation at the international level. - COLLAPSE
    December 2018
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