Review Article

Journal of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences. December 2020. 297-310
https://doi.org/10.22698/jales.20200024

ABSTRACT


MAIN

  • Introduction

  • Malodor and Odorants: Source, Generation and Emission

  •   Source

  •   Generation and emission

  •   Malodor and malodorants

  • Technologies and Techniques for Controlling Malodor and Malodorants in Livestock Facilities

  •   Animal feeding: diet modification (reducing crude protein (cp))

  •   Air treatment: washing walls and wet scrubbers

  •   Air treatment: dust reduction

  •   Air treatment: Ozonation

  •   Air treatment: bio-filtration

  •   Manure handling

  •   Manure handling: Storage covers

  •   Manure handling: Bedding

  •   Manure handling: Additives

  •   Manure handling: Solid/ liquid separation of manure

  •   Manure handling: Aerobic treatment

  •   Manure handling: Anaerobic digestion

  • Conclusions

Introduction

Livestock facilities are the most important sources and cause of malodor nuisances that have human health impacts in rural areas (Cole et al., 2000; Wing and Wolf, 2000). Expansion in livestock production, besides, animal feeding and manure handling operation results are responsible for odor problems. Consequently, malodor causes social issues, negative impacts on the local economy, human health, and living standards in rural areas (Thu, 2002). The enhancement of the pig production industry has caused the malodor problem to become an environmental constraint (Feddes et al., 2001). According to Hardwick (Hardwick, 1985), there are three basic areas of malodor emission: livestock buildings (30%), manure storage facilities (20%), and land application (50%) (Mielcarek-Bocheńska and Rzeźnik, 2019). However, reduction of malodor or malodorant production in livestock facilities, referred to as FIDO (Frequency, Intensity, Duration, and the Offensiveness) of the malodors, was suggested by Watts and Sweeten (Brancher et al., 2017; Watts and Sweeten, 1995). Malodor management and mitigation from livestock facilities depend on few vital factors: the malodor, malodorants (the chemical compounds responsible for creating unpleasant odors), their sources and emission factors, the sense of malodor, and malodor management techniques and technologies. In this study, an attempt has taken to summarize these factors and to focus on malodor mitigation techniques and technologies with respect to the problem of malodorants in livestock (swine).

Malodor and Odorants: Source, Generation and Emission

Source

Swine odor sources could classify into the following three categories: buildings and facilities, manure storages, and land application sites. Malodorant composition and emission strength from pig facilities are due to the synchronization of many variables, including animal species, type of production, housing system, and feed and feeding system, as well as the method of manure storage and application and weather conditions (Song et al., 2013; Ubeda et al., 2013).

Generation and emission

Slow, incomplete degradation of the organic matter contained in manure, such as proteins, fermentable carbohydrates, and fats (Varel, 2002), are the primary basis of malodor emission. Livestock malodors originate from the microbial decomposition of the organic matter that remains in the animals' digestive tracts of and their manure under anaerobic conditions (Guffanti et al., 2018; Mackie et al., 1998). Anaerobic microorganisms use organic compounds as their electron donors and as sources for cell synthesis and metabolism. And that results in the production of various malodorous gasses and volatile compounds (Hartung and Phillips, 1994). It has been shown that starch fermentation dominates in cattle manure whereas both protein and starch fermentation take place in swine manure (Miller and Varel, 2003). In animal Manure proteins are the precursors of sulfurous, indolic, and phenolic compounds, while volatile fatty acids (VFAs), ammonia (NH3), and volatile amines in manure are some of the major malodorous compounds (Jang and Jung 2018; Aarnink et al., 2007; Mackie et al., 1998).

Malodor and malodorants

Mixtures of more than 411 identified compounds (Janni, 2020; Schiffman et al., 2001) are extracts into the air from livestock facilities. Among them, 168 were identified as volatile compounds (Chen et al., 2009). However, the interactions between them are not yet well understood. Table 1 reports malodorant heterogeneity modified by Schiffman et al. (2001) and Liu et al., (2014). The principal components responsible for malodor production are NH3, amines, sulfur-containing compounds, VFAs (Page et al., 2014; Zhang and Zhu 2003) indoles, skatoles, phenols, alcohols, and carbonyls, as reported by (Cho et al., 2013; Parker et al., 2013; Trabue et al., 2011) (Table 1). Among the constituents, sulfur-containing compounds (i.e. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide) have been found to have the highest correlation (Jo et al., 2015).

Table 1.

Odorous compounds: group, example compound, chemical formula, and characteristics (Liu et al. (2014); Schiffman et al. (2001))

Compound group Formula Characteristics Compound group Formula Characteristics
Acids HCOOH Irritant, pungent Aromatics C6H5CH3 Irritant
CH3COOH C6H4(CH3)CH=CH2 Irritant
CH3CH2COOH Ethers C2H5OC2H5 Sweet, pungent, irritant
Alcohols CH3OH Alcoholic C4H4O
C2H5OH Fixed gases NH3 Sharp, pungent
Aldehydes HCHO Pungent, rotten Halogenated hydrocarbons CHCl3 Pleasant, nonirritating
CH3CHO Pungent Hydrocarbons CH3CH2CH(CH3)2 Irritant
C6H5CHO Almond. irritant Ketones CH3COCH3 Irritant
Amides CH3CONH2 Irritant, fishy Nitriles Aromatic
HCON(CH3)2 pungent Other N compounds C5H5N Irritant, burnt
Amines CH3NH2 Instant, putrid, fishy Phenols C6H5OH Irritant
Aromatics C6H6 Benzene-like Sulfur compounds H2S Rotten eggs

Technologies and Techniques for Controlling Malodor and Malodorants in Livestock Facilities

Muehling (1970) mentioned livestock production facilities malodor control should be assigned to 1) counter the cause, 2) treat the emissions, and 3) possibly deal with both. However, NH3 and H2S are the main gasses emitted from manure in swine houses (Blanes-Vidal et al., 2009). In this paper, some very important but commonly used techniques and technologies for malodor control have been discussed. Table 2 summarizes the technologies for controlling malodor by diet modification and air treatment and their application and air pollution from livestock (swine) facilities.

Table 2.

Odor control techniques of diet modification and air treatment and their application in livestock (swine) facilities

Practices Methods Efficiency Odor reduction Comments Benefits Difficulties References
Animal
feeding
(diet
modification)
Reduction of
CP
(crude
protein)
Moderate ~
Low
9 out of 10
odorants were
significantly
reduced
including
NH3 and H2S
Low CP content
diets
and/or feed
additives
Use of synthetic
amino acids to
reduce diet CP;
cost is well
established;
should be
considered as
a BMP
Reduced
excretion of
N and thus can
reduce manure
NH3 releases; no
effects on
animal
performance
Hobbs et al., 1996;
Kay and Lee, 1997;
Ha and Kim, 2015
Air treatment Washing
Walls/
Wet
scrubbers
Moderate Dust:
-50% and
NH3: 33%
Effectiveness
depends on
solubility of
odorants
50% reduction
of dust and 33%
of NH3 when the
ventilation rate
is low
Wastewater
treatment needed
Moore Jr et al., 2018;
Estelles et al., 2011;
Keener et al., 1999
Oil
Sprinkling
Low ~
moderate
Dust levels:
37-89%
Create slick
flooring for pigs
and people;
health concern
on oil misting
Effectively
reduces dust and
odor levels
Residue on the
floor and pen
partitions, which
increases labor
required for
cleaning
Jacobson et al., 1998;
Zhang et al., 1996
Windbreak
Walls
Moderate ~
high
20% to 67% Many odorous
compounds
are absorbed
on dust particles
May reduce odor
and dust
emissions
Periodic
cleaning of dust
on walls is
necessary for
sustained odor
control
Lemay et al., 2000
Ozonation Moderate Swine barn:
50%, Tunnel
vent: 58%,
Exit fan: 63%
Reduced disease
and mortality,
improved
growth are
experimentally
confirmed
May have
positive health
effective
Effectiveness for
odor
remediation
currently
unproven
Watkins et al., 1997
; Bottcher et al., 1998
; Keener et al., 1999
Bio-filtration Moderate ~
high
H2S: 88%,
NH4: 50%,
odor threshold:
81%
Operating
conditions;
moisture:
40%-65%,
temperature:
25°C-50°C,
media porosity:
40%-60%
Effectively
reduces odors
and H2S
emissions
Requires
replacing
existing
ventilation
fans
Bottcher et al., 2000
; Sun et al., 2000
; Rahman et al., 2012

Animal feeding: diet modification (reducing crude protein (cp))

Manure produced by growing and finishing pigs contains protein and carbohydrates that undergo incomplete microbial degradation and thereby produce malodorous compounds (Recharla et al., 2017; Sutton et al., 1999). Several authors mentioned that reducing CP from 21% to 41% can reduce around 19%- 47% of N and 13% to 9% of NH3 (Cho et al., 2015; Hobbs et al., 1996; Kay and Lee, 1997).

Air treatment: washing walls and wet scrubbers

This technique involves the use of water sprays to remove dust particles from the air. This system reduced the total dust and NH3 levels by as much as 65% and 67% at low airflow rates and 20% and 15% at high airflow rates, respectively. Acid scrubbers can reduce NH3 by 70% to over 90% (Melse and Ogink, 2005; Estelles et al., 2011), but they are much less effective in reducing typical malodors (the overall average was 27%) (Moore Jr et al., 2018; Melse and Ogink, 2005).

Air treatment: dust reduction

Toxic and malodorous gasses could get absorbed by dust particles. This is why reducing the dust concentration inside buildings can also lower malodor and gas emissions. Sprinkling with oil, air filtration, and washing walls and other wet scrubbers are a few of the techniques that have been suggested to reduce dust reduction. Oil sprinkling reduces malodor and H2S levels both inside a building and in ventilated air (MPCA, 2003; Jacobson et al., 1998), with an observed reduction in dust levels from 37 to 89% compared to an unsprayed control.

Air treatment: Ozonation

Keener et al. (1999) reported that the NH3 level was reduced to 58% and the total dust mass at the exit fan by 63% in a building with an ozonation system and maximum tunnel ventilation compared to a non-ozonated building (Schiffman et al., 2000). Priem (1977) found that O3 reduced the NH3 level in a swine barn by 50% during cold weather and by 15% under hot ventilation conditions due to high ventilation rate reduced the retention and reaction time of ozone (Banhazi et al., 2002). Remondino and Valdenassi (2018) reported that ozonation creates anti-oxidant and immune-stimulating action among 700 pigs and 0.1–0.2 ppm ozone in the air prevents the transmission of genes via aerogenic (Prrss, Mycoplasma, Influenza, Actinobacillus, and Streptococci).

Air treatment: bio-filtration

Exhaust air from swine housing and sub-surface pits for manure storage possibly be treated with air-cleaning technology composed of organic materials. Biofilters can reduce malodorous emissions of NH3 and H2S from ventilation fan exhausts by up to 90% (Chen and Hoff, 2012; Sun et al., 2000). The general, the recommended operating conditions for biofilters are a moisture level of 40% to 65%, a temperature of 25°C to 50°C, and media porosity of 40% to 60% (Nicolai et al., 2005; Rahman and Borhan, 2012). Well-designed and managed biofilters can reduce odors and H2S by as much as 95% and NH3 by 80% (Chen and Ho, 2012; Lim et al., 2012).

Manure handling

Technologies available to reduce the malodor from waste storage and treatment facilities can classify into two groups: 1) those intended to add to existing systems and 2) those designed to replace the existing systems completely. These systems are divided into seven categories: bedding, manure additives, solid/liquid separation, composting, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment lagoons, and biogas production. Table 3 summarize most common malodor removal techniques.

Table 3.

Odor control techniques and their application in livestock (swine) manure management

Practices Methods Efficiency Odor reduction Comments Benefits Difficulties References
Manure
handling
Straw Moderate ~
high
Thickness-
25.4cm:
-90%
Inexpensive,
adaptable,
and immediately
useable
Odor
reduction
Temporary
solution; straw
sinks after a
certain period
Vander-Zaag, 2008
; Schmidt et al., 2004
Plastic
Cover
Thickness-
0.4cm:
-76%
Slow release
of gases
from storage
Reduce
odor and
H2S
emissions.
Significant
capital cost
Williams, 2003
; Jacobson et al., 1999
; Stenglein et al., 2011
Clay balls/
Leka rock
Thickness
-3.8-4.0cm:
60%-80%
- Helps reduce
odor and
hydrogen
sulfide
emissions
Care must be
taken during
agitation and
pumping;
capital
cost
Vander-Zaag 2008
; Williams, 2003
; Bottcher et al., 2000
Bedding Low ~
moderate
16%-63% Carbon-based
systems,
physical
structure by
absorption,
evaporation,
and
composting
Significant odor
reduction;
partial
composting
of bedding
in place.
Must change
after certain
time; increased
volume of
manure to
haul
Chastain, 1999
; Ritter, 1989
Additives Low ~
moderate
- Categories for
malodor
control
agents:
masking,
biological
additives,
absorbents,
digestive
and chemical
deodorants
Acidification
can effectively
reduce NH3
emission;
Oxidizing
agents
are effective
for the
short-term
Digestive
additives are
effective for
only one
or two
malodorants
McCrory and Hobbs, 2001
; Kai et al., 2008
Solid/ liquid
separation
Moderate Total
odorants:
26%,
Combine
with aeration:
55%
Reduce odor
by mechanical or
gravitational
separation;
efficiency
is highly
variable
Can reduce
odor in
liquid manure
storage pits;
better works
with aeration
Significant
operational
and
capital costs.
Requires
management
of the solid
waste fraction
Szögi and Vanotti, 2007
Aerobic
treatment
Moderate ~
high
50-80% Solids
decomposition
and odor
control by
inhibiting VFA
accretion and
other odor
generating
compounds
Effectively
reduces
odor,
nutrients and
organic
matter
Significant
capital and
operating
costs
Zhu et al. 2008
; Ndegwa et al., 2002
; Williams et al., 1989
; Kroodsma, 1986
Thermophilic
aerobic
oxidation
(TAO)
Moderate ~
high
VFA: 95%,
NH3:77%,
H2S:
99%
Thermophilic
aerobic
oxidation
3-5 days
operation,
maintain
50-60°C
Effectively
reduces
odor;
nutrient
recovery;
volume
reduction
- Lee et al., 2000
; Lee and Cha, 2003
Anaerobic
treatment
lagoon
Moderate VFA:79-97%, Digestion of
only swine
manure was
not very
promising
due to
high content
of NH3
Reduces
nutrients
and
odor
Odor
releases
when weather
changes;
higher energy
consumption;
cost nominal
Westerman and Zhang, 1997
; Powers et al., 1999
; Zhang et al., 2000

Manure handling: Storage covers

Li et al.(1997), Clanton, and Schmidt (2001) found that covering a manure surface with low-cost materials (6 or 10 inches of chopped straw, 0.4 inches of vegetable oil, or 8 inches of floating clay balls) is helpful to reduce malodor emissions like H2S and VOC and sulfur compounds. Organic bedding, straws clay balls, and geotextile membranes are classified as permeable covers and impermeable covers, include plastic, rubberized, or concrete covers (Stenglein and Clanton, 2011a, 2011b). Most researchers have agreed that a straw cover thickness of > 200 mm is needed to reduce malodor by more than 60% (Vander-Zaag et al., 2008; Williams, 2003; Meyer and Converse, 1982).

Manure handling: Bedding

Bedding systems create solid manure by placing the animals’ bedding and dung on a deep pack of cornstalks, straw, or other material. The system has shown advantages for malodor control, and pig health and production. Bedding systems have two categories: 1) carbon-based and 2) sand-based (Richard and Smits, 1998; Brumm et al., 1997).

Manure handling: Additives

There are five categories for malodor control agents: masking agents, biological additives, digestive deodorants, absorbents (e.g. zeolite and bentonite) (Ritter, 1989), and chemical deodorants (acids, disinfectants, or oxidizing agents) (Chastain, 1999; McCrory and Hobbs, 2001). Digestive additives are effective for only one or two target malodorants (McCrory and Hobbs, 2001). Oxidizing agents (potassium permanganate (KMnO4), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ozone (O3) are efficient for the short-term reduction of malodor (McCrory and Hobbs, 2001). Slurry acidification can effectively reduce NH3 emission and improve sulphur and nitrogen fertilizer amounts in the treated slurry (Kai et al., 2008).

Manure handling: Solid/ liquid separation of manure

The idea behind solid/liquid separation is separated solid matter has a much smaller volume than the liquid portion so the liquid portion has lower biodegradable organic matter for anaerobic degradation and thus less malodor generation. Solid/liquid separation alone can reduce malodor by 26% but can reduce it by 55% when combined with aeration (Pain et al., 1990). However, frequent manure scraping, which can reduce NH3 emissions by approximately 50% (Swierstra et al., 2001) has proved to be the most promising among the other techniques. However, some studies show that only Solid/liquid separation is not enough to reduce the malodor from swine manure (Zhu et al., 2001; Zhang and Lei, 1998).

Manure handling: Aerobic treatment

Aerobic bacteria are capable of decomposing much more of the organic compounds in manure than anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic treatment prevents VFA and other malodorous compound accumulation by solid decomposition of the treated manure (Zhang et al., 2004; Williams et al., 1989). Typically, the classification of an aeration system is either aerobic or facultative. By aeration, 5 to 35% of the organic N in the slurry can convert to NH3. After solid-liquid separation with five days of aeration, VFA reaches the acceptable level of 230 mg/l (Ndegwa et al., 2002). Zhu et al. (2008) studied a low-cost surface aeration system that showed the VFA concentration of 230 mg/l and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 171 mg/l, after 83 and 74 days of operation respectively. Lee and Lee (1996) showed that phototropic bacteria in aerated liquid swine manure for 10 days reduced the VFA by 90.2% and the BOD by 42.6%. The thermophilic aerobic oxidation (TAO) system, which is an aerobic thermal system maintained at 50-60°C for liquid manure treatment, can remove VFA components by up to 95% (1,538 to 72.9 mg/L) (Lee and Lee, 2000). Meanwhile, another study on the TAO system showed that it dose remove 77% of ammonia ions (NH3+) and 99% of the VFAs (Lee and Cha, 2003). The Liquid Manure Circulation System (LMCS) which is a combination of aeration and liquid manure circulation system became a common practice to reduce manure malodor problem in Korea pig farms. Ha (Ha and Kim, 2019) mentioned that LMCS can reduce odor strength by 2.4 to 2.3 in inside of barn to the border of the firm. He also shows the CO2 can reduce from 584 to 718ppm, ammonia 6 to 10 ppm and H2S 0.0 to 0.1 in inside of the barn to the border of the farm respectively In another study Botermans et al., (2010) showed that without LMCS NH3 and H2S concentration was in barn outside of pig house was 18.8ppm and 3.97ppm whereas, with LMCS NH3 reduced to 6.3ppm and 0.4 in barn and outside respectively and H2S reduced to 1.06 in barn and 0.14 outside.

Manure handling: Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology for the stabilization of organic waste and the production of biogas and is one of the most effective end-of-pipe methods of reducing malodor and air pollutants from swine manure (Chantigny et al., 2009). Moreover, there is a 22% reduction of NH3 anaerobically treated manure after surface application compared to untreated manure (Hansen et al., 2006). Hjorth et al. (2008) mentioned that anaerobic digestion reduced the VFA content which caused an increase in pH and that escalates the potential of NH3 volatilization. The VFA contents could be reduced by 79 to 97% when anaerobic digestion has been used (Hwang et al., 2018; Hansen et al., 2006). Pain et al. (1990) found that odor intensity from anaerobic digestate reduced by 70% and 80% compared to untreated (anaerobic) manure during land application.

Conclusions

A good number of researches related to livestock malodor nature, measurement techniques, dispersion modeling, mitigation techniques, and removal technologies have been conducted, albeit with some limitations. These limitations are mainly the effectiveness of controlling malodor, the complexity of the operation, high capital and operating costs, and the expertise required for some mechanized systems effectively. Diet manipulation of CP has shown some promising results in reducing nitrogen emission and has proved to be a low-cost approach that reduces NH3 emissions effectively. Biofilters have great potential as the most promising and cost-effective technic specifically for swine houses and manure storage comparing to ozonation or wet scrubbers. Malodor emission from outdoor storage can be reduced by using a lagoon cover. Although, covering materials regulate their effectiveness. Both of these techniques need careful maintenance for effective performance. Solid-liquid separation is a very effective process to mitigate malodor by separating manure particles but that is difficult to separate the easily degradable finer particles that generate malodor during anaerobic digestion processes. Anaerobic digestion is a good option for controlling malodor from swine manure, but NH3 inhibition is of great concern. Moreover, anaerobic digestion is not cost-effective for small and medium scale swine operations. The aerobic treatment uses aerobic bacteria to decompose the organic compounds and prevent the accumulation of VFA; conversion of organic N. The aerobic treatment reportedly reduces the BOD from liquid manure. The TAO treated manure is more malodor free than the other aeration treatment. Only a single method may not be enacted to control the malodor problem for in-house swine production, manure storage, and/or manure treatment. The LMCS could be a potential technique for long term liquid manure treatment and malodor reduction method in pig farms. However, for future suggestions- the odor generation sources should reduce in the first place, such as create and follow a manual for quick manure collection. Secondly, the fusion between existing technologies. Combining various methods is highly recommended for a sufficient and significant reduction in malodor in pigs and other livestock facilities. In Particular, for manure handling, adding additives under plastic and/or straw cover during storage could be promising to the reduction of malodor emission. And for manure treatment, solid/ liquid separation, liquid manure circulation system (LMCS), and the thermophilic aerobic oxidation (TAO) system could be a potential fusion technique, which will reduce the malodor emission besides transforming manure from waste to fertilizer.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Korean Institute of Planning and Evaluation for technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through Agri-Bio industry Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (317008-3), and the 2018 Sangji University research fund (Development of integrated up-cycling strategies of organic wastes (manure & mortality) in rural area).

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